Toxicity vs THR benefit
Literature references
Contact addresses
Therapy I Toxicity versus therapeutic benefit

The Ozone-Oxygen-Therapy: The low-dose ozone concept
As ozone is toxic to the lung epithelium, international and national maximum emissions- and immission values are fixed and medical ozone must never be applied via the respiratory tract. Precise forms of application had been developed over decades and standardized. The
special techniques, dosages and concentrations are summarized in the guidelines for ozone therapy.

The effects of Medical Ozone as hormetic substance can be assigned to those defined by hormesis (Rattan et al. 2009): In living organisms, single or repetitive administration of otherwise potentially dangerous or toxic substances in small doses increases their homeodynamics (homeodynamic space), i.e. their self-regulatory capacity. Or, alternatively:

Dose-efficacy diagram

Moderate oxidative stress stimulates the protective mechanisms of cells and organs and is biologically useful, see the dose-efficacy diagram and table.

Comparative table

Toxicity of ozone by inhalation on the respiratory system and the extrapulmonary organs
Therapeutic benefit by special applications
Long term exposure (8h) at concentrations up to 1ppm in animals
Oxidative dysstress

ROS, LOPs, cytokine
increasing infiltration of neutrophiles, activated macrophages
chronic inflammation
O2-, OH-radicales...

Downregulation of antioxidants

Single dose, low concentration

positive oxidative stress

Bioregulation of antioxidants